Ngaahi ngaue tokoni Kulupú Toe maʻuʻanga fakamatala

beacon frame format

Ko e ha ʻoku totonu ke ke ʻilo fekauʻaki mo e fometi ʻo e mama?

Fakahokohokó
    Tanaki atu ha ʻuluʻi header ke kamata faʻu ʻaki e fakahokohoko

    Ko e ha ʻa e ʻEsia ʻo e mama

    Ko e mama ko ha kiʻi, meʻangaue wireless ʻoku ne ʻomi ha ngaahi fakaʻilonga mo maʻu ha ngaahi fakaʻilonga mei he ngaahi meʻangaue fakapotopoto kehe ʻoku ne ʻakilotoa ia. Fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e ivi Bluetooth, ʻOku fakamafola ʻe he wireless transmitter ko ʻeni ha fakaʻilonga fakaletio ʻaki ha ngaahi mataʻitohi mo e mataʻifika, hili ia pea ʻave kinautolu ʻi ha vahaʻataimi nounou kae angamaheni ʻaki ha ngaahi vahaʻataimi 70 mita ʻe.

    Ko e fakamafola fakaʻilonga ʻaki ha maama kamo ʻoku ʻi ha faʻahinga founga ʻoku ʻiloa ko e fometi ʻo e mama. Ko e founga ʻo e mama ko ha founga fetuʻutaki ia ʻoku ʻi ai e ngaahi meʻa kehekehe ʻo ha maama kamo. Meimei pehe maʻu pe, Ko e fakamatala ko ʻeni ko ha afo ia ʻo e ngaahi mataʻifika mo e ngaahi mataʻitohi ʻoku fokotuʻutuʻu fakataha ko e fakaʻilonga ʻo e maama kamo.

    maama kamo IEEE 802.11

    Ko e maama kamo ko ha ʻEsia pule ia ʻoku lahi ʻi IEEE 802.11 fakavaʻe ʻo e netiueka fakalotofonua ʻi he ʻelia wireless (WLANs). Ko e IEEE 802 ko ha seti Netiueka Fakaʻēlia (LAN) ngaahi tuʻunga fakatekinikale ʻoku ne fakamahinoʻi ʻa e control ʻoku lava ke hu ki ai (MAC) mo e kuta fakatuʻasino (PHY) fakaʻaongaʻi ki hono fakahoko ʻo ha netiueka fakaʻelia ʻo e wireless (WLAN) fetuʻutaki fakakomipiutá. ʻOku faʻu mo tokangaʻi e ngaahi tuʻunga moʻui ko ʻeni ʻe he ʻinisititiuti ʻa e kau ʻenisinia fakaʻilekitulonika ʻi he ʻuhila (IEEE) Komiti ki he ngaahi tuʻunga moʻui LAN, mei heni, IEEE 802. MOKOBlue mo e ngaahi kautaha faʻu koloa kehe ko e kaingalotu IEEE, ko ia IEEE 802 ʻOku lahi hono fakaʻaongaʻi

    Kimuʻa pea lava ke ʻave ha ʻesiaʻi taa, Kuo pau ke fakahu ʻa e fakamatala ki he netiueka kotoa pe ʻoku fie maʻu ʻe ha tuʻuʻanga ʻi he ʻEsia ʻo e maama fakamafola. ʻOku fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e ngaahi ʻEsia ko ʻeni ke fetuʻutaki mo backups hono sync ngaahi meʻangaue ʻi ha WLAN. ʻI hono fakalea ʻe niʻihi, ʻa e ngaahi device kotoa pe ʻi ha fometi ʻo ha maama kamo, ʻOku fetuʻutaki ʻa e ngaahi meʻangaue kotoa pe ʻoku fehokotaki mo e ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI ke fakapapauʻi ʻa e senolo pe tuʻunga ʻo e tauʻanga lelue.

    Ko e ha hono tuʻo lahi hono ʻave ʻo e ʻEsia mama?

    Ko e vahaʻataimi ko ia ʻi he vahaʻa ʻo ha ongo concurrent broadcasted maama ʻi ha maama kamo, ko ʻene maama kamo. ʻOku angamaheni ʻaki hono fakafuofuaʻi ʻa e ngaahi vahaʻataimi ʻo e mama ʻi he ngaahi ʻiuniti taimi (TUs); ʻIuniti taimi kotoa pe (TU) ʻOku tatau ia mo e 1024 microseconds. Ko ia, ʻe lava ke fakafuofuaʻi ʻe ha taha ʻa e vahaʻataimi ne ʻuluaki seti ʻi he vahaʻa ʻo e ngaahi mama ke 100 milliseconds. ʻOku faʻa configurable ʻa e vahaʻa taimi ko ʻeni ke maʻolunga ange pe maʻulalo ange ʻi he ngaahi meʻangaue maama lahi hange ko e Bluetooth mama.

    Ngaahi fatongia ʻo e mama ʻEsiaʻi taa

    ʻOku lahi e ngaahi tafaʻaki ʻo e maama kamo ʻi WLAN.

        • Ko e mahuʻinga mahuʻinga taha ʻo e maama kamo ko ʻene fanongonongo ʻa e lava ke maʻu e netiueka ki ha ngaahi meʻangaue kehe. ʻI hono fakalea ʻe niʻihi, Ko e tefitoʻi fatongia ʻo e maama kamo ke tuʻuaki ʻa e ʻi ai ʻa e ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI ʻi ha feituʻu pau lolotonga ia ʻoku ne toe ʻomi foki ʻa e fakaikiiki ʻo e faʻahinga kulupu fengaueʻaki ko ia ʻoku ne malava, fokotuʻutuʻu mo e fakamatala maluʻi ki he netiueka ’ ngaahi meʻangaue ʻoku fehokotaki mo e s.
        • Makehe mei he meʻa ni, ʻOku toe fakaʻaongaʻi foki ʻa e maama kamo ke tauhi ʻaki e ngaahi ngaue mo fokotuʻutuʻu e fakamatala ʻi he vahaʻa ʻo e ngaahi meʻangaue ʻoku fakafehokotaki mo e netiueka.
        • ʻOku faʻa fakahu ʻa e ʻesiaʻi mama ʻi ha ngaahi vahaʻataimi kae lava ke maʻu ʻa e ngaahi kautaha toʻotoʻo (smartphones, wearables, ʻū komipiuta toʻotoʻ, etc.) ʻa ia ʻoku fekauʻaki mo e netiueka ke maʻu ʻa e netiueka, ʻai ke ʻiloʻi, pea fakafehokotaki ki ai ʻi heʻene ʻosí.

    Founga fokotuʻutuʻu ʻo e maama lahi

    ʻI he angamahení, ha fometi ʻo ha maama kamo comprises e 802.11 Puleʻi ʻo e huʻanga Lotoloto (MAC) ʻuluʻi header, ko ha sino, mo ha fakahokohoko ʻo e sieke ʻEsia (CS), Naʻe toe ʻiloa foki ko e taulani. Meimei pehe maʻu pe, ʻOku faʻu ʻa e ʻEsia mama ʻe he server ʻa e MAC, ʻa ia ʻoku ʻi ai hono tuʻasila ʻo hange ko e tuʻasila ʻesiaʻi taa. Pea ʻi he taimi ʻoku ʻave ai ʻa e ʻEsia ʻi he feituʻu ʻoku lava ke hu ki ai (NGAAHI MAʻUʻ), ʻa e ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI deploys hono Interface mo e kau papi ului ki he tuʻasila transmitter. Ko e tuʻasila ʻo e Interface ʻa e ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI ko e BSSID. Naʻe faifai pe pea, ʻOku ʻave ʻa e ʻEsia ʻo e mama ki he client – ʻa ia ko e tokotaha ʻoku ne fai e foaki mo e ikuʻanga.

    Founga fokotuʻutuʻu ʻo e maama lahi

    Ngaahi konga ʻo e maama lahi fakaʻesia

    ʻOku kau ʻi he ʻuluʻi fakamatala ʻa e fakamatala ki he maama kamo fekauʻaki mo e feituʻu ʻoku huʻu ki ai ʻa e ʻEsia, ko e cipher lahi ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ki he ʻEsia fakamatala encryption, e vave ʻo e fakamatala, mo ha ngaahi meʻa lahi ange. Konga ki he tuʻasila ʻe fa – maʻuʻanga, ki he, tokotaha ʻoku ne ʻave, mo e receiver – ko e ngaahi konga ia ʻo ha ʻuluʻi tohi ʻo ha maama Bluetooth.

    ʻOku kau ʻi he sino ʻo ha maama BLE ʻa e fakamatala ki he maama kamo, ʻa ia ʻoku ʻoatu mo malu. ʻOku fakafalala ʻa e lahi ʻo e sino ʻo ha ʻEsia ʻi he lahi ʻo e paʻanga ʻoku fai.

    ʻOku comprises ʻe he taulani ha sieke Cyclic redundancy 32 (CRC), ʻOku ngaue ia mo e fakahokohoko ʻo e sieke ʻesiaʻi taa (CS). ʻOku fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e fakahokohoko ko ʻeni ke fakapapauʻi ʻa e kakano ʻo e maama kamo ke mahino pe kuo teʻeki ai ke fakaʻaongaʻi pe fakakeheʻi lolotonga e feʻaveʻaki. ʻOku lele kotoa ʻa e ngaahi tuʻunga ʻulungaanga mahuʻinga mei he ʻuluʻi ʻesiaʻi taa mo e sino ʻi ha fikaʻi, pea ʻoku tauhi honau ola ʻi he malaʻe ʻo e CS.

    Ngaahi konga pau ʻi he maama fakalukufua

    ʻOku kau ʻi he ngaahi konga mahuʻinga ʻi he sino ʻo ha maama kamo ʻa e:

    Timestamp (8 bytes): ʻa ia ko e taimi ia ʻoku fekauʻaki mo e maama kamo ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ʻe he ngaahi meʻangaue ʻoku fakafehokotaki ke fokotuʻutuʻu ʻaki ʻa e WLAN.

    Vahaʻa ʻo e mama (2 bytes): ʻa ia ko e taimi ia ʻoku tuʻu ai ʻa e ongo maama hokohoko ʻe ua ngaahi ʻi he ʻEsia.

    Fakamatala ʻOku Malava ke Fakaʻaongaʻí (2 bytes): ʻa ia ʻoku ne ʻomi ha fakamatala fekauʻaki mo e malava ʻe he netiueka pe meʻangaue. ʻOku ascertains pe ko e faʻahinga kulupu fengaueʻaki ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ko ha tuʻuaki ʻo e netiueka pe ko ha faʻunga netiueka.

    Fokotuʻu ʻo e ngaue tokoni (SSIDs): ʻa ia ʻoku toe ʻiloa foki ko e ngaahi hingoa ʻo e netiueka ko e tefitoʻi konga ia ʻo e ngaahi maama kotoa pe pea ko ha konga mahuʻinga ia ʻo ʻenau ngaahi founga ngaue.

    Fakautuutu hono poupouʻi: Ko ha feituʻu octet ʻeni ʻe 8 ʻoku ne fakamahinoʻi ʻa e lahi ʻo e senolo ’ s. ʻE lava ke maʻu ʻeni ʻi he faʻahinga maama kotoa pe mo ʻenau ngaahi founga.

    Fakahokohoko fakahangatonu (FUʻU) Parameter fokotuʻu (2 bytes)

    IBSS Parameter (4 bytes): ʻa ia ʻoku toki maʻu pe ʻi ha maama tuʻuaki ʻo e netiueka (Network).

    Mape ʻo e fakaʻilonga ʻo e me (TIMI): ʻa ia ʻoku ʻi he ʻEsia ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI pe ʻo e maama kamo. ʻOku ʻave ia ʻe he netiueka ’ s ngaahi MAʻUʻANGATOKONI ʻi ha vahaʻataimi, pea ʻoku ʻaonga ia ʻi he founga ʻo e maama ʻa BLE ʻi he founga maʻulalo.

    Tauʻataina ʻa e fakakikih (FF) Parameter fokotuʻu (8 bytes)

    Tuʻo lahi hono punopuna (FH) Parameter fokotuʻu: ʻa ia ʻoku fakaʻaongaʻi ʻe he tukufakaholo FH.

    Founga pau ʻo e ngaahi konga (field)

    Faʻahinga ʻo e maama kamo

    ʻA e ngaahi 802.11 ʻe lava ke fakafaʻahinga ʻa e ʻEsia mama ki ha faʻahinga ʻe tolu, ʻa ia ko e; Tokangaʻi ʻo, Mapuleʻí, mo e fakamatala. Meimei pehe maʻu pe, Ko e ʻEsia pule ʻa e maama kamo, Ko e Control ʻEsia ko ha kole ia ke ʻave (Fai ʻe he R), pea ko e ʻEsia ʻo e fakamatala ko ha ʻEsia QoS. ʻI he founga tatau pe, ʻOku puleʻi ʻe he ʻEsia pule ʻa e tefitoʻi ngaue tokoni ʻa e ʻEsia (BSS), ʻOku fakafekauʻaki ʻe he Control ʻEsia ʻa e founga Lotoloto, pea ʻoku ʻi he ʻEsia ʻo e fakamatala 3-7 ngaahi fakamatalá.

    ʻI he angamahení, ʻOku maʻu ʻe he ngaahi faʻahinga ʻEsia kotoa ko ʻeni ʻa e ʻuluʻ. Ka neongo ia, ʻOku faʻa ʻi ai ha faikehekehe ʻi he sino ʻo e ʻEsia, as it carries more detailed information about the frame type it is a part of.

    Eddystone Beacon Format Subtypes

    A ubiquitous beacon format is the Eddystone beacon format (powered by Google) which supports both iOS and Android devices. It can transmit one beacon packet format at a time through three different frame types, namely, Eddystone URL beacon format, beacon UUID format, and beacon TLM format.

    The Eddystone URL beacon format transmits a website link (URL) to the connected device. This beacon data format makes it possible to connect outside of an installed mobile app.

    The beacon UUID format is a 16-digit linked-up character that recognizes a beacon. Hangē ko ʻení, the UUID/UID can activate an installed app on your mobile device to initiate a connection to a beacon.

    The beacon TLM format allows for beacon data to be communicated between a beacon and a device using telemetry. Hangē ko ʻení, a beacon’s battery level or temperature level can be communicated using TLM.

    Organization of Eddystone

    Management Frame Subtypes

    In a wireless network, management frames are generally used to control the Basic Service Set (BSS). The management frame controls activities such as probing, associating, roaming, and disconnecting devices from the BSS. In this frame type, the type field 0 indicates management.

    For the management frame subtypes, a combination of different numbers between 0 mo e 1 have various descriptions within the frame header.

    Subtype FieldFakamatalá
    0000Association request
    0010Reassociation request
    0100Probe request
    0110Timing advertisement
    1000Maama Kamo
    1010Disassociation
    1100Deauthentication
    1011Authentication
    1110Action
    0001Association response
    0011Reassociation response
    0101Probe response
    0111Reserved

     

    Control Frame Subtypes

    Control frames assist data and management frames with their deliveries and are used for frame acknowledgment. A control frame usually has a header and a trailer but does not have a frame body. In this frame type, type field 1 typically indicates control.

    For the control frame subtypes, a combination of different numbers between 0 mo e 1 has various commands.

    Subtype FieldFakamatalá
    0000-0001Reserved
    0111Control Wrapper
    1000Block ack request (BAR)
    1001Block ack (BA)
    1010PS-Poll
    1011Fai ʻe he R
    1100CTS
    1101ACK
    1110CF-End
    1111CF-End and CF-Ack

     

    Data Frame Subtypes

    Meimei pehe maʻu pe, data frames are used to transfer information or initiate a command which will, in turn, lead to an event. It is important to note that some data frames contain only a header and trailer, but nobody.

    HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) and Point Coordination Function (PCF) are the types of wireless networks that utilize data frame subtypes.

    Subtype FieldFakamatalá
    0000Data
    0001Data + CF-ACK
    0010Data + CF-Poll
    0011Data + CF-ACK + CF-Poll
    0100Null (no data)
    0101CF-ACK (no data)
    0110CF-Poll (no data)
    0111CF-ACK + CF-Poll (no data)
    1000QoS Data
    1001QoS Data + CF-ACK
    1010QoS Data + CF-Poll
    1011QoS Data + CF-ACK + CF-Poll
    1100QoS Null (no data)
    1101Reserved
    1110QoS CF-Poll (no data)
    1111QoS CF-ACK + CF-Poll (no data)

     

    Specific Service Set Identifier (SSID) of Beacon Frames

    The Service Set Identifier (SSID) of a network typically names the network’s service set or extended service set. Meimei pehe maʻu pe, what the beacon frame does is broadcast the SSID through beacon packets, and eventually, the presence of a network – in the form of a wireless network name – will be announced and visible to users for a possible connection.

    SSIDs usually range from 0 bytes to 32 bytes and are usually in a renowned language like English. Unlike the common types of set identifiers, SSIDs usually give room for customization. Before associating with a wireless network, it is essential that a station knows the network’s SSID. This information can be either obtained from a beacon’s broadcast via its base station or by knowing

    the SSID beforehand through other means (possibly from a previous configuration) in a case where a base station advertising is absent.

    Ko ia, when the connection is initiated between a device and a network, the device sends the SSID in a probe request. Afterward, a response is sent by an access point on the condition that the SSID in the probe request matches an SSID in sync with the access point. If all these conditions are not met, the access point will not respond to the probe request, resulting in an unsuccessful connection.

    Virtual APs and Multiple SSIDs

    The concept of SSID in 802.11 does not allow for one AP to connect with multiple IDs because it is a service set identifier initially designed for a single AP and service set at a given time. Ka neongo ia, it is no surprise that businesses are beginning to demand enterprise-class APs that can work with multiple SSIDs simultaneously. For this to be possible, the access point is divided into a number of virtual APs within the same single hardware platform. This is present in modern-day multi-provider spaces like airports, train stations, bus stations, etc.

    These Virtual APs copy the operation system of a physical AP with IP layers within a MAC; ka neongo ia, the radio frequency layer is absent.

    Any Difference Between a BLE Broadcast Frame and BLE Beacon Frame?

    In a Bluetooth Low Energy transfer, communication is usually unidirectional and initiated by a broadcast or advertisement. Hange ko ʻeni, in communication between a BLE beacon and another device close to it, the BLE beacon device broadcast data packets regularly, waiting for the device – which must have scanned for such BLE broadcast and be familiar with the beacon device’s network – to detect the transmitted data packets and connect afterward. ʻI hono fakalea ʻe niʻihi, a BLE beacon frame is a distinct payload transmitted within a BLE broadcast frame.

    Quite a number of BLE devices function by transmitting advertisements, but except a device is specifically built to work as a BLE beacon, every other BLE device does not transmit BLE beacon frames. Ko ia, beacon frames are only peculiar to BLE beacon devices, despite the fact that there are other BLE devices on the market.

    To sum up, ko e maama BLE ko ha faʻahinga meʻangaue makehe ia ʻoku langa ke mit ha fakamafola ʻo fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e tekinolosia ʻo e fakamafola ʻa e BLE, ka ko hono makehe ʻoku ʻi he foʻi moʻoni ko ia ʻoku ʻikai tatau ia mo e ngaahi meʻangaue kehe ʻa e BLE hange ko e smartphones, ʻoku toe ʻoatu foki ʻe ha maama BLE ʻa hono ngaahi ʻulungaanga makehe ʻo fakafou ʻi ha maama kamo.

    Fakamafola ʻa e BLE fakaʻesia mo e BLE mama ʻEsiaʻi taa

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